Malignant Melanoma

Pathway ID: SIGNOR-MMView in NDEx

Description: Melanoma is a skin cancer. It might exist as distinct subtypes associated with the activation of the MAPK and the PI3K pathways even if there is an association between distinct melanoma subtypes and molecular somatic events. Mucosal, acral, and to a lesser extent, lentigo malignant melanomas, can have increased copies of CDK4, and CCND1 (cyclinD), as well as mutations in KIT receptor. NRAS is mutated in about 18% of melanomas, and seems to be more frequently activated in nodular melanomas and melanomas due to chronic sun damage. BRAF has a recurrent V600E mutation (Gain of function) in about 50–70% of melanomas, however, this mutational event is frequently reported in benign pigmented naevi, and is not fully sufficient to induce a malignant transformation. MEK1 and MEK2 are downstream from RAS and RAF, on the same MAPK pathway. Activating mutations of MEK1 and MEK2 are found in 8% of melanomas. The PI3K pathway is activated through a PTEN loss-of-function mutation (most often deletion) in 20–40% of melanomas. Activating mutations or amplifications of PI3K or of AKT1 can also be found in some melanomas.

Curated by: Livia Perfetto

complexity level

level 1 seed interactions
level 2 connect
level 3 first neighbors
level 4 all
level 5 PPI

31 Seed Entities

Name Primary ID
E2F1 Q01094
BRAF P15056
G1/S transition SIGNOR-PH50
BAD Q92934
PTEN P60484
CREB1 P16220
BCL2L1 Q07817
BCL2 P10415
KITLG P21583
SOS1 Q07889
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate CHEBI:16618
KIT P10721
RPS6KA5 O75582
MITF O75030
Proliferation SIGNOR-PH4
GRB2 P62993
NRAS P01111
Apoptosis SIGNOR-PH2
PIK3CA P42336
RB1 P06400
TP53 P04637
CDKN2A P42771
PDPK1 O15530
MDM2 Q00987
Survival SIGNOR-PH13